One appliance and crew from Broughton, one from Newport Pagnell and one from West Ashland attended, along with an officer.
Two men were out of their vehicles when the firefighters arrived.
The firefighters used hydraulic rescue equipment and small gear to release one woman who was passed into the care of South Central Ambulance Service.
Three lanes of the motorway were closed while they worked at the scene.
Thames Valley Police and National Highways were also in attendance.