One appliance and crew from West Ashland, one from Newport Pagnell, one from Broughton and two officers attended. Firefighters used one hose reel, four sets of breathing apparatus and a fan.
They rescued a man from the first floor of the terraced house, administered emergency care treatment and left him in the care of South Central Ambulance Service.
Reinspections were carried out throughout the night and morning. Buckinghamshire Fire & Rescue Service and Thames Valley Police are investigating the cause of the fire.
Crews from West Ashland will return in the morning to provide reassurance and safety advice and carry out Fire and Wellness visits within the neighbouring areas.